2 edition of Molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of proglucagon gene found in the catalog.
Molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of proglucagon gene
Written in English
Numerous reports have indicated that protein kinase A (PKA) is not the sole target of the second messenger cAMP. Although proglucagon gene expression and the synthesis of proglucagon encoded hormones could be activated by PKA activators such as Forskolin, whether the activation is entirely attributed to PKA has not been examined. We found that Forskolin also activates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in two intestinal proglucagon producing cell lines. The MEK inhibitors were found to repress the expression of proglucagon promoter as well as endogenous proglucagon mRNA in these cell lines, and to attenuate the stimulatory effect of Forskolin on proglucagon gene transcription. The Epac-pathway-specific cAMP analogue, 8pMeOPT-2"-O-Me-cAMP, effectively stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation as well as proglucagon mRNA expression and moderately stimulated proglucagon promoter expression. Finally, dominant negative (DN) Epac2 repressed Forskolin activated proglucagon promoter activity. We, therefore, suggest that cAMP regulates proglucagon expression, at least partially, via the Epac-Ras/Rap-MEK-ERK signaling pathway.
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Mechanisms underlying these effects, however, remain largely unknown. Here we postulate that the intestinal tissues' selective preference allows d-INS to exert enhanced action on proglucagon (Gcg) expression and the production of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, an incretin hormone possessing both glycemia-lowering and weight loss effects. Changes in gene expression constitute the main component of the bacterial response to stress and environmental changes, and involve a myriad of different mechanisms, including (alternative) sigma factors, bi- or tri-component regulatory systems, small non-coding RNA’s, chaperones, CHRIS-Cas systems, DNA repair, toxin-antitoxin systems, the.
Get this from a library! Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of cis-regulatory variants on gene expression at T2D associated loci. [Heekyoung Lee; Johann Josef Hauner; Martin Hrabé de Angelis]. Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying natural variation in gene expression is a central goal of both medical and evolutionary genetics, and studies of expression quantitative trait loci.
Her lab integrates cell biological, molecular, biochemical, and genomics approaches to study epigenetic mechanisms underlying pluripotency, differentiation and reprogramming, with a particular emphasis on how transcription factors reprogram cell fates; how long-noncoding RNAs modulate gene expression and chromatin states; and how the genome is. The type 2 diabetes risk gene TCF7L2 is the effector of the Wnt signaling pathway. We found previously that in gut endocrine L-cell lines, TCF7L2 controls transcription of the proglucagon gene (gcg), which encodes the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Whereas peripheral GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion, brain GLP-1 controls energy homeostasis through yet-to-be defined.
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Introduction. The gene that encodes glucagon, namely the proglucagon gene (gcg), was isolated from rodents and humans in the early s (Bell et al. a,b, Lopez et al.Heinrich et al.Irwin ).The analysis of gcg cDNAs from these species further revealed that it encodes not only glucagon but also two glucagon-like peptide hormones, namely glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) Cited by: Mechanisms underlying proglucagon gene expression.
Jin T(1). Author information: (1)Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. @ The proglucagon gene (gcg) encodes a number of peptide hormones that are ofcell-type specifically expressed in the pancreatic islets, the distal ileum andthe large intestine, as well as certain brain neuronal by: Mechanisms underlying proglucagon gene expression Article Literature Review (PDF Available) in Journal of Endocrinology (1) August with 62 Reads How we measure 'reads'.
In contrast, transfection of islet cell lines with the catalytic subunit of PKA bypasses the cAMP signaling defect and activates proglucagon gene transcription. Consistent with data from studies of mice and rats in vivo, insulin reduces the levels of proglucagon gene expression in islet cell lines via inhibition of gene transcription.
The expression of proglucagon gene (gcg) and post-translational processing gene prohormone convertase 3 (pc3) and the GLP-1 content in the culture medium of L-cells notably increased after the ACE treatment ( μg/ml).
At the same time, β-catenin nuclear translocation occurred, and its downstream protein cyclin D1 was activated, showing the Cited by: The molecular mechanism underlying the weight-sparing effects of d-INS has not been clearly identified. In this study, we examined whether d-INS enhances Gcg expression and GLP-1 production in the intestinal L cells and whether this is among the mechanisms that underlie the weight-sparing effects of d-INS.
Cell Culture, Transfection, and LUC Reporter Gene Analysis. The intestinal GLUTag, STC-1, and the pancreatic InR1-G9 cell lines were grown and maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with appropriate serum ().To examine the effects of lithium and forskolin on proglucagon mRNA expression, GLP-1 synthesis, and secretion, cells were grown in the medium containing the.
Molecular evolution deals with the mechanisms underlying evolution at the molecular level. This chapter begins by describing the origin of organic matter on our planet.
The emergence of informational macromolecules and the RNA world scenario for the origin of life are covered next. The aim of this article is to review the potential underlying biochemical mechanisms that are related to diet modifications in DNA methylation and demethylation.
DNA methylation is a vital modification process in the control of genetic information, which contributes to the epigenetics by regulating gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. A) Mechanisms Underlying the Production and Function of the Incretin Hormone GLP The proglucagon gene (Gcg) encodes three major peptide hormones, namely glucagon (produced in pancreas), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2 (both are produced mainly in intestines).
Back to book. chapter. 9 Pages. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Mood Stabilization in Manic-Depressive Illness: The Phenotype Challenge. With Ognian C. Ikonomov, Husseini K. Manji. Molecular mechanisms underlying bile acid-stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and its degradation product GLP-2 (3–33) and major proglucagon fragment (Feltrin PCR reactions mix consisted of first-strand cDNA template, primers (TaqMan gene expression assays, Applied Biosystems) and PCR Master mix (Applied Biosystems).
In all. Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia.
Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes. A number of molecular mechanisms have recently been defined that underlie carbohydrate, lipid and protein sensing in gut endocrine cells.
Knockout mice lacking sodium glucose tranporter-1 (SGLT-1) or the short chain fatty acid sensing receptor FFAR2 (GPR43), for example, have highlighted the importance of these molecules in incretin secretion. Prokaryotic Gene Expression (Frontiers in Molecular Biology) 1st Edition by Simon Baumberg (Editor) ISBN ISBN If you want to understand the main mechanisms of bacterial gene regulation and to appreciate their history, breadth and detail, read this book.' Micro Biology Today About the Author.
Simon Baumberg is at. We found previously that in gut endocrine L-cell lines, TCF7L2 controls transcription of the proglucagon gene (gcg), which encodes the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Whereas peripheral GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion, brain GLP-1 controls energy.
Increased expression of Cdx-2/3 also activates expression of the endogenous rodent proglucagon gene in transfected InR1-G9 cells.
Two Cdx-2/3 isoforms are detected in rodent islet cells, including full-length bioactive Cdx-2/3, and an amino-terminally truncated protein that binds to the G1 element but does not exhibit transactivation potential.
Doctoral Thesis Research: Molecular mechanisms involved in insulin- and leptin-mediated regulation of hypothalamic proglucagon gene expression and the action of glucagon-like peptides on hypothalamic neuropeptides.
M.D. (Physician), Donetsk State Medical Institute/University, Donetsk, Ukraine. Hu's work focuses on fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of gene expression. Since dysregulation of gene expression is the cause of a wide variety of pathological conditions (cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, for example), the results from these basic mechanistic studies are essential for developing novel.
From an epigenetic standpoint, the pathologic mechanisms involved in the development of type 1 diabetes may include DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA, and molecular mimicry. These mechanisms may act through regulating of gene expression, thereby affecting the immune system response toward islet beta cells.
The molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of complex behaviour are poorly understood. The mammalian genus Microtus provides an excellent model for. Results. Gene Expression Profiling in Blast-Infected Rice Leaves. Blast disease is a devastating rice disease caused by the ascomycete fungus M.
genome sequences are available for both rice (11, 12) and the blast fungus (), so that the rice–blast fungus interaction system offers to test the utility of genomic information for understanding host–pathogen interactions.MECHANISMS OF MONOSACCHARIDE SENSING.
A number of studies have shown that luminal, but not systemic, glucose is a potent trigger of GLP-1 release in humans and animals (16,33–37).The classic and most extensively studied glucose-sensing cell is the pancreatic β-cell, which responds to the rising plasma glucose concentration by increasing its metabolic rate ().